Cobblestone is a durable substrate used for paving roads and streets. As a rule, various types of stone are called paving stones, for example, natural stone or concrete, the quality of which is comparable to small-format bricks. The cobblestone tile has a small load capacity. For this reason, paving stones are most often used for the improvement of roads, sidewalks, and pedestrian areas. Cobblestones have been used for centuries. This method of covering is widespread all over the world and is actively used not only to decorate streets but also as an element of decor. The cobblestone uses grids for permeable paving, it has such features as the nature of natural raw materials, chemical and mechanical resistance, resistance to aging and durability, shades and colors created by the environment, the possibility of repeated use, and the size suitable for streets. Unlike asphalt, cobblestone is an environmentally friendly material. The area near shops, entertainment centers, banks, hotels, and offices can change beyond recognition thanks to a square stone. Currently, cobblestones are used even for processing highways and bridges. Cobblestone is in demand among the population, as it is a relatively cheap building material. People with average wealth can afford to use paving stones to increase the area around their houses. Permeable or exposed paving consists of standard concrete blocks that have a large percentage of the surface area of the pavement. The open area allows water to penetrate the pavers unlike regular pavers, this helps water run off the pavers into the stormwater system. Asphalting is very popular among companies. Thus, the use of this type of building material allows you to design urban landscapes economically, the quality fully explains its popularity. Puddles do not form on this coating and dirt does not accumulate. High-quality cobblestones must meet several requirements so that pedestrians can move comfortably and safely through them. The traffic of vehicles of different weights is allowed on cobblestones with a thickness of at least 6 centimeters.
Indicators of the strength of cobblestones
The final product has very high strength indicators, high water absorption indicators, and resistance to environmental factors and factors related to the use of the product (wear, sliding). This is an effective drainage solution for standing water. However, the most important property from the point of view of use is the resistance of the material to color loss. This feature is explained by the fact that in the production of these products, additives, and artificial pigments are not used to achieve the desired color. The color is the result of using different compounds that naturally burn to certain colors such as yellow or red during heat treatment and manufacturing. Another advantage of the coating is that 5 surfaces can be used simultaneously as front surfaces before the concrete coating. This allows you to use one product in many places without the need for additional items. If the surface is damaged, the product does not need to be replaced. Simply remove the product, replace it, and put it in the same place. These advantages, combined with the highest resistance to abrasion and slippage, provide all the properties of the product, regardless of the level of humidity. We recommend laying pavers “freely” on mechanically compacted pebbles (cornerstone) or concrete channels. These technologies can pass rainwater deep into the foundation, water does not remain between and under the paving stones. The surface is not damaged by precipitation and frost, and the corners of the paving stones do not chip. At the same time, the risk of changing the color of the paving stones is minimal. It is not recommended to use crushed stone from a cement-sand mixture. This is a common practice (although not recommended) that has unfortunately been adopted in the art of concrete and granite paving. By laying the pavers in this way, a “condition” is created from the concrete, which does not allow moisture to pass directly under it. The result of the application is long-term or systematically repeated discoloration, which in some cases leads to damage to the cracks of the paving stones. When laying pavers, it is necessary to pay attention to the width of the gaps, which should be at least 3 millimeters when laying on a flexible base (for example, gravel/crushed stone), 5-10 millimeters, if the pavers are laid on a semi-solid or rigid base (for example, concrete slabs). Cavities are filled with crushed stone (pieces of 2-3 millimeters) or composite screed, depending on aesthetic requirements and expected durability. The advantage of composite mortar over traditional mortars is that it is resistant to vegetation growth, leaching, and wind. Pavers are completely flexible, have rich colors, and are produced in two versions: permeable or open. Such surfaces can also be mechanically cleaned with a vacuum cleaner without damaging the seal. Pavers can be used on all horizontal surfaces, such as paths, streets, playgrounds, steps, and curbs mentioned. Due to their natural acid resistance, paving stones are also often used in the construction of sewers.
The process of laying paving stones
One of the most important processes of creating an outdoor space around a room is laying paving stones. Before laying the tiles, it is necessary to imagine the place and purpose of laying the tiles. It is important to strictly comply with the rules of technological requirements at all stages of laying tiles for covering and operating conditions because the aesthetic and durable appearance of your surface depends on this.
Chapter 1. Preparation of the project.
It is necessary to draw up a plan and a step-by-step scheme for laying tiles on the territory:
- Determine the size of the plot;
- Determine the load on the surface of the earth;
- Drawing up a plan for laying paving stones on the surface;
- Determination of surface drainage conditions (longitudinal and transverse slopes) and the need to use drainage systems;
- Calculate the required number of sidewalks, curbs, and other elements.
Chapter 2. Preparation.
After marking the site according to the project, at the installation site, it is necessary to remove the top layer of nutrient soil, which should be compacted and covered with geotextiles, and the ground cover should be thoroughly cleaned of tree roots and plant residues. Attention should also be paid to a drainage substrate with sufficient water permeability. If necessary, increase the coating layer by spreading coarse crushed stone. Determining the groundwater level is very important. In the case when the groundwater level is higher than the surface level, it is necessary to artificially lower the water level by drainage methods.
Chapter 3. Planning and marking of the territory.
It is necessary to mark the boundaries of the site and make markings for the installation of curbs using pins or metal parts to indicate the height of the top edge of the paving slabs or curbs. The slope of the surface is created depending on the communication channel. The bottom of the recess is leveled with coarse-grained sand to a given thickness with a special machine.
Chapter 4. Installation of paving stones
The function performed by cobblestones is to strengthen the shape and contours of the road surface, preserving its integrity and decorativeness, which is a peculiar form for laying cobblestones. To correctly install paving stones, perform the following actions: Setting borders; Dig a trench, the height of which should be below the first layer of the base under the paving slabs; Tamp the bottom of the surface and cover it with a layer of sand; Next, a cement-sand mixture is added to the surface; which must be aligned, leaving a gap of about 3 millimeters between the concrete elements; the pavers must be fixed in the correct position by correctly laying them.
Chapter 5. Stacking a layer.
For the bearing layer, you can use any frost-resistant and drainage material, for example, fine gravel, or crushed stone. The thickness of the bearing layer for traffic areas is necessarily determined by the project, depending on the class of the road, it can be from 30 to 90 centimeters. The base must be compacted by 20% of the original thickness to ensure adequate durability and strength during operation. For the upper layer of the base, it is necessary to use a material of a fraction of an intermediate value between the grain size of the underlying and bearing layers to prevent the mixing of these two layers during operation.
Chapter 6. Arrangement of the sub-layer.
For the bedding layer, sand, small crushed stones, and gravel are suitable. It should be borne in mind that the thickness of the bedding layer in a compacted state should be from 3 to 5 centimeters. In special cases, it is possible to add a binding material – cement or slaked lime – to the underlying layer. For coatings that will not be exposed to weather conditions in the future (under cover, indoors), it is recommended to use a cement-sand solution, moistened before laying, for the underlayment layer.
Chapter 7. Laying paving stones.
Paving stones are laid in even rows, starting from the already laid surface or fixed edge, according to the laying profile. The direction of the movement of teaching should be from the edge of the playground to the center. Control the laying of each row with a rope or thread so that the tiles are evenly distributed over the surface. The width of the seams when filled with sand should be 3-5 millimeters, when fixed with a solution of 8 millimeters. Laying seamless pavers is not allowed, because then the edges of the pavers will inevitably crack during operation (due to temperature and force deformations). If the territory is intended for motor vehicle traffic, paving stones should be laid at an angle to the direction of traffic (this ensures an even distribution of the load on each element, reduces wheel noise, and prevents bouncing of cars, subsidence, and displacement of paving stones along the seams). It is recommended to lay pavers from several pallets at the same time, because due to the specifics of the production technology, there may be differences in the shade of the pavers on different pallets. It should be taken into account that part of the paving stones is cut and a reserve should be provided. You need to cut the paving stones no more than in half.
Chapter 8. Filling seams.
After laying the pavers, the joints (spaces between the tiles) should be puttied to ensure a flexible distribution of the load between the elements. Dry, washed sand is used to fill the seams. After grouting the seams, sand remains are removed from the surface and the applied coating is sealed. Sealing of the surface. The surface of the applied coating is recommended to be compacted manually until it acquires a stable state. The surface is uniformly compacted from the edge to the center until the planned level of the surface and the stability of the concrete elements are reached. After that, you can seal the seams and other areas of the paving stones.